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National Convention Schedule

Thursday Night 03/21

Agenda

Thursday March 21st, 2024

5:00pm – 7:00pm: Registration – McClelland Event Center

7:00pm – 9:00pm: Students Social Activity – Wheeler 101

7:00pm – 10:00pm: Executive Council Dinner & Meeting – McClelland Event Center

Friday Morning/Afternoon 03/22

Agenda

Friday Morning/Afternoon 03/22

8:00am – 8:30am: Morning check-in – Joe Roberts Room McClelland

8:30am – 8:45am: Opening Ceremony – Joe Roberts Room McClelland

8:45am – 9:00am: Presentation preparation time – Joe Roberts Room McClelland

9:00am – 10:30am: Oral Presentation Session (see Oral Presentation Abstracts below)
Lily Simmons – The Effects of Temporary Calf Removal on Luteinizing Hormone Levels in Cattle
Madeline Henry – The Effects of Temporary Calf Removal on Cortisol Levels in Lactating Cows
Rayna Cochran – Using Reflectance Data to Estimate Fescue Height
Noah Helphenstine – Possible Diagnostic Procedure in Cancer Tissue Identification
Casey Peavler – Improvement of Student Education Resources Using Data Analysis
Destiny Arenas – Identification of VCAN, SEMA3A, WNT10A, AHNAK2, AREG, and SNCG as Early Pancreatic Cancer Markers

10:45am – 12:15pm: Poster Presentation Session (See Poster Presentation Abstracts below)
Dustin Traffie – The Utilization of the Crystal Kappa Mutations in HIV Fab Crystallization
Trevor Tally – Docking and Isolation of the Anti-Cancer Molecule Crambescidin 800
Grace Bauchman – The Effects of Herbicide on Soil Antimicrobial Activity
Eli Stachofsky – Exploring the Arbuzov Reaction with Secondary Halides
Kailynn Berger – Analysis of Sunscreen UV Protection Utilizing UV-Visible Spectrophotometry
Laphat Jean – The Lipidomes of C. Elegans With Mutations in ASM-3 and HYL-2 Show Distinct Lipid Profile During Aging
Yvette Umutoniwase – Culturing Neurons From Zebrafish Brain and Spinal Cord: Student-Centered Tissue Culturing Approach
Seema Mustafa, Therese Byankuba, Luke Young – Comparative Analysis of Microlitter Abundance in the Proventriculus, Gizzard, and Intestines of North American Waterfowl

12:15pm – 5:00pm: Lunch on your own; Field trips
Update on Wonders of Wildlife Field Trip: Now $12 per person!

Friday Night 03/22

Agenda

Friday Night 03/22

6:30pm – 10:00pm: Banquet, Speaker, Awards, and Committee Meetings – Joe Roberts Room McClelland

Speaker: Dr. Kara Phipps

Title: A Virologist Walks into a Pandemic: Perspectives on Scientific Research in a Public Health Laboratory

Short Bio

Dr. Kara Phipps began her scientific career at Southwest Baptist University performing undergraduate research on biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Kara joined the Microbiology and Molecular Genetics doctoral program at Emory University where she was mentored by Dr. Anice Lowen and studied the factors which impact coinfection dependence and gene reassortment in influenza A viruses. Following graduation, Kara became a fellow at the New York State Public Health Laboratory (NYSPHL). She is now a research scientist for the NYSPHL where she studies the antibody responses to viral infections and vaccination.

Saturday 03/23

Agenda

Saturday 03/23

8:00am – 8:30am: Committee follow up; Presentation preparation time

8:30am – 8:45am: Opening Announcements – Joe Roberts Room McClelland

9:00am – 10:15am: Oral Presentation Session (See Oral Presentation Abstracts below)
Hannah Olson – Investigation of a Novel Epoxy Curing Agent and Coatings Made Thereof
Trevor Talley – The Effects of Different Weaning Methods on Serum Cortisol Levels and Stress Behaviors in Bovine Calves
Julia Johnson – Crambescidin 800: Possible Cancer Therapy for Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells
Benjamin Cameron – The Effects of Left Over Metal Ions on the Toxicity of Gold Nanoparticle Solutions
David Pham – The Study of Antioxidant Capacity of Galangin
Lee Hernandez – Analysis of Heavy Metal Content in the University of Indianapolis R.B. Annis School of Engineering Soil

10:30am – 12:00am: Poster Session 2 (See Poster Presentation Abstracts below)

Yuden Dorji – Assessing Microplastic Concentrations in the Gastrointestinal Tracts and Fecal Matter of Tree and Ground Squirrels
Tamyra Hunt – RNA-Seq Gene Expression and Diversity in A. Laterale, A. Jeffersoniaum, and Unisxual Salamanders
Luna Holley – Effects of Varying Concentrations on the Enzyme Lactase
Mollie Hill – Annotation of ANO3 in the Puerto Rican Parrot
Elizabeth Piercy – Computational Modeling of the ZMIZ1 Missense Mutation to Determine Variant as Benign or Pathogenic
Laphat Jean, Kailynn Berger- Analysis of Crystallinity of Miconazole Tablets by Electrospray Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging
Kloie Cook – Quantifying the Colonization Rates of Native Dung Beetles in Dung Pats
Kyle McCreary – Elucidating Activity for WNT Signaling in Breast Cancer Chemoresistance

12:15pm – 1:30pm: Closing Business Meeting, Officers Picture –

Oral Presentation Abstracts

Presenter(s) Information: Lily Simmons and Madeline Henry
Author(s): Lily Simmons, Madeline Henry, Sara Campbell, Kaila Lloyd, Trevor Talley, Kate McDonald, John Murphy
Chapter: Gamma Kappa
College/University: Southwest Baptist University
Subject Area of Presentation: Life Sciences

Presentation Title

The Effects of Modified Temporary Calf Removal on Hormone Levels in Beef Cattle

Presentation Abstract

Profits of cow-calf operations depend on the reproductive success and efficient breed-back time of the cow. To calve annually, the cow must overcome the anestrus cycle within 80 days of parturition. The anestrus cycle is characterized as the time of rest and repair following the birth of a calf in which reproductive hormone secretion is inhibited, preventing timely breed-back. To increase reproductive hormone levels, temporary calf removal techniques have been used to inhibit prolactin releasing, causing a spike in the principal reproductive hormone, luteinizing hormone (LH). The goal of this research is to show the benefits of using a modified form of temporary calf removal to improve reproductive success. This experiment used 14 cow-calf pairs that were randomly divided into two equal groups. The first group underwent traditional removal of the calf from the mothers. The second group utilized a modified non-invasive nose-flap, which allowed the calves to stay with their mothers but eliminated suckling. On the first day, the pairs were assigned to groups, tagged, and weighed. Blood samples were then taken via the coccygeal vein of the cows, and heat patches were administered on the tail heads to monitor physical signs of estrus. Blood sample collection and monitoring of heat patches continued daily for days 1, 2, and 3. On day 3, a final weight was recorded for all pairs. Rectal palpation was performed 90 days later to determine pregnancy rates. In lab, all clotted blood samples were double centrifuged to extract the serum and stored at -80 C until ready to be analyzed using a Bovine LH ELISA plate. LH level results were inconclusive due to an error in the ELISA plate. However, there were significant findings in the physical data collected. Within 21 days of calf removal, 5 of the traditional and 3 of the nose-flap group had cycled based off of the heat patch detection. Within 45 days, all 7 of both groups had cycled. Although both the traditional and nose-flaps calves experience similar weight loss of an average of about 4 pounds and 3 pounds per day, respectively, we found that the weight of the cows had a substantial difference. The cows of the traditionally separated group averaged a loss of 10 pounds per day while the modified group averaged a gain of about 8 pounds per day.


Presenter(s) Information: Madeline Henry
Author(s): Madeline Henry, Lily Simmons, Kaila Lloyd, Jaida Kettner, Trevor Talley, Logan Turner, Rayna Cochran, Heather Baker
Chapter: Gamma Kappa
College/University: Southwest Baptist University
Subject Area of Presentation: Life Sciences

Presentation Title

The Effects of Temporary Calf Removal on Cortisol Levels in Lactating Cows

Presentation Abstract

Temporarily removal of a calf from a lactating cow has been shown to stimulate the estrous cycle and increase pregnancy rates. Traditionally, producers physically separate calves from the cow for 72 hours. This separation causes an acute stress response, increasing calf stress behaviors and incidents of illness. However, utilizing a novel temporary calf removal technique by placing a nose flap in the septum of the calf’s nose is suggested to decrease cortisol levels and stress-related behaviors in cows. This modified technique allows the cow and calf to remain together and maintain the maternal bond while inhibiting the calf from nursing. Our research looks at a proposed novel, modified calf removal system that maintains estrus and pregnancy rates while lowering cortisol levels in cows. Fourteen cow-calf pairs were randomly divided into two groups of seven. The first group was assigned to the traditional removal group, where the calves were physically separated from the cow for 72 hours. The other seven pairs, assigned to the novel removal group, utilized a nose flap to prevent suckling while maintaining physical contact with the mother. Blood samples were collected via the coccygeal vein daily throughout the experiment. The samples were placed in red top tubes, allowed to clot, and transported back to the lab where the samples were double centrifuged. The serum was collected and frozen at -80 C until ready to be analyzed. The samples were analyzed using a bovine cortisol enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) plate. Cow and calf weights were also recorded on the first and last days of the experiment. Results showed no significant differences in the cortisol levels of the cows. The traditional group showed a slightly higher increase in cortisol on days one and two but this change was not significant (p=0.49). However, it was observed that the cows of the modified group gained an average of 8.3 pounds while the cows in the traditional group lost an average of 10.2 pounds. This suggests that utilizing a modified removal system increases cow performance while lowering stress related responses.


Presenter(s) Information: Rayna Cochran
Author(s): Rayna Cochran, Heather Baker, Kaila Lloyd, Andrea Yount, Kate McDonald, Dr. John Murphy
Chapter: Gamma Kappa
College/University: Southwest Baptist University
Subject Area of Presentation: Environmental Sciences

Presentation Title

Estimation of Plant Height Utilizing a UAV

Presentation Abstract

Feed costs are a major expense in the cattle industry. Due to a rise in costs, it is essential to implement a well-managed grazing system to minimize feed costs while also increasing plant vigor and pasture conditions. Literature emphasizes the importance of forage height in a grazing system to ensure adequate rest periods as well as forage production and utilization. Currently, producers must measure grass height at multiple locations within a pasture and multiple times per month during the growing season. This can be both time-consuming and destructive. The purpose of this experiment is to utilize an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) as a quicker, more efficient, and more accurate way to measure plant height. This study was conducted on Southwest Baptist University’s Kiefer Cattle Campus as part of a collaboration with a larger, multi-disciplinary study. Nine 10 x 20 ft plots were mapped on a Hoberg silt loam soil with dominant vegetation of Festuca arundinacea. The plots were randomly divided into 3 groups based on a clipping schedule to mimic a grazing system and ensure variability in plant height and maturity. The continuous group was clipped every 7 days, rotational clipped every 21 days, and management-intensive clipped based on maturity at a height of over 6 inches. The plots were measured and clipped based on this schedule with the UAV being flown weekly. A Phantom 4 Multispectral UAV equipped with RGB, rededge, and infrared cameras, as well as an integrated spectral sunlight sensor to capture solar irradiance was used in this study. The DJI GS Pro software application was used to map a flight path with autopilot navigating the 52 waypoints. Images of the plots were captured from 66 ft above ground level over a flight length of 510 ft. The predefined capture points utilized a 70% side overlap and 80% front overlap. The data was then uploaded, processed, and analyzed using the PIX4D software platform. From this software, the Normalized Difference Vegetative Index (NDVI) and Leaf Chlorophyll Index (LCI) were plotted against height. The results of the experiment did not show a relationship between plant height and the indices that were used. The R2 values were not significant and were most likely impacted by the extreme D3 drought across Missouri while data was being collected. Future research in the area is aimed at collecting reflectance data and measurements during a time of more favorable weather conditions.


Presenter(s) Information: Noah Helphenstine
Author(s): Noah Helphenstine, Phillip Jen, Dustin McCarty, Carrington Russell, Fadi Al Akhrass, Christina Al Akhrass, Jessica Slade, Harty Ashby, Kylee Morris
Chapter: Beta Xi
College/University: University of Pikeville
Subject Area of Presentation: Life Sciences

Presentation Title

Neuropeptide S coexists with neuromodulators and presumptive neurotransmitter in the human lung tissue afflicted with adenocarcinoma. Possible diagnostic procedure in cancer tissue identification.

Presentation Abstract

In this novel study, we have investigated the innervation patterns of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators in human lung adenocarcinoma. A total of 10 tissue samples of lung adenocarcinoma and one healthy lung tissue were examined using triple-labeled immunohistochemistry (IHC) and confocal microscopy. Samples were stained with commercially available antibodies which include neuropeptide S (NPS), neuropeptide S receptor (NPSR1), neuropeptide Y (NPY), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), neurotensin (NT), protein-gene product (PGP 9.5), CD3, CD8, and CD94. Rich NPY- and NPS-immunoreactive (-IR) nerves were observed surrounding the alveolus, bronchioles, and within the smooth musculature. Many of these nerves also coexisted with NOS, and occasional coexistence was seen with NT. This innervation pattern was similar when compared to healthy lung tissue. A unique difference was observed with large areas of denervation within the cancerous tissue. This denervation was confirmed by using the general nerve marker PGP 9.5. Subsequent experiments to detect cytotoxic T cells (CD3, CD8A) and γδT cells found a large population of these lymphocytes appearing among denervated tissue. It is speculated that the denervation is an attempt to contain cancer growth and development. Nonetheless, this ‘innervation void’ may be used as a possible manner to diagnostically confirm lung adenocarcinoma in humans.


Presenter(s) Information: Casey Peavler
Author(s): Casey Peavler, Bang Huang
Chapter: Beta Xi
College/University: University of Pikeville
Subject Area of Presentation: Mathematics

Presentation Title

Improvement of Student Education Resources Using Data Analysis

Presentation Abstract:

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Abstract Embargo: Yes


Presenter(s) Information: Destiny Arenas
Author(s): Arenas, Destiny, Sanchez, Ava, Xu, Yi, Lopez, Kevin, Deng, Janice J, Sharkey, Francis E, Wang, Huamin, Liu, Jun, Wang, Pei
Chapter: Sigma
College/University: Our Lady of the Lake University
Subject Area of Presentation: Life Sciences

Presentation Title

Identification of VCAN, SEMA3A, WNT10A, AHNAK2, AREG, and SNCG as Early Pancreatic Cancer Markers

Presentation Abstract

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a lethal cancer with a five-year survival rate barely reaching up to 12%. Nearly half of PDAC cases are diagnosed at an advanced stage, which has a five-year survival rate of 3%. If diagnosed at an early localized stage, the survival rate can reach up to 40%. Our lab has established a novel model to generate PDAC from normal human pancreatic exocrine tissue. This model system can allow us to recapitulate PDAC development, and identify the potential diagnosis and therapeutic markers for PDAC. We engineered human PDAC cells by adding the four most common pancreatic mutations (KRAS, p16, TP53, and SMAD4) that can form tumors in xenograft mice models. We performed RNA-seq analysis on different stages of cells and identified a list of candidate genes which have the potential to serve as markers for early diagnosis or treatment. Of these candidate genes, six were chosen for further identification: VCAN, SEMA3A, WNT10A, AHNAK2, AREG, and SNCG. The objective of this study is to validate whether these four candidate genes express in human PDAC so that they may be identified as markers for early diagnosis or treatment.
Immunohistochemistry staining was performed on engineered KPTS pancreatic tumors (originated from ductal and acinar lineages, respectively), and human patient pancreatic tumor as well as adjacent normal pancreas tissue. It was found that in the engineered ductal tumor, WNT10A, AHNAK2, SEMA3A, AREG, and SNCG stained positively in the epithelial cells, while VCAN stained positively in the stromal cells. In the engineered acinar tumor, WNT10A, VCAN, SEMA3A, AREG, and SNCG stained positively in the epithelial cells, while AHNAK2 stained positively in the stromal cells. More importantly, the results with the human patient samples showed that AHNAK and AREG stained positively in the tumor’s epithelial cells, but not in adjacent normal tissues. These results point to the fact that some of the identified genes from our model system are indeed upregulated in PDAC and represent potential early pancreatic cancer markers.


Presenter(s) Information: Hannah Olson
Author(s): Hannah Olson, Shikhin Nadkarni, Dr. Dean C Webster
Chapter: Gamma Gamma
College/University: Concordia College – Moorhead
Subject Area of Presentation: Physical Sciences

Presentation Title

Investigation of a Novel Epoxy Curing Agent and Coatings Made Thereof

Presentation Abstract

**********

Abstract Embargo: Yes


Presenter(s) Information: Trevor Talley
Author(s): Trevor Talley, Jaida Kettner, Logan Turner, Paityn Kramer, Madeline Henry, Heather Baker, Lily Simmons, Rayna Cochran, Kate McDonald, Dr. John Murphy
Chapter: Gamma Kappa
College/University: Southwest Baptist University
Subject Area of Presentation: Life Sciences

Presentation Title

The Effects of Different Weaning Methods on Serum Cortisol Levels and Stress Behaviors in Bovine Calves

Presentation Abstract

Weaning of beef calves is considered the most stressful event in a calf’s life due to the abrupt physical separation of the calf from its mother. The traditional weaning method causes the secretion of cortisol, leading to physiological and psychological effects including an alteration of diet, unhealthy stress behaviors, decreased immune system, and profit loss of up to $1,000 per calf. Recent studies have developed a modified weaning method utilizing a non-invasive nose-flap to prevent the suckling reflex in calves while still maintaining the maternal bond. The purpose of this research is to provide evidence of a less stressful weaning method by measuring cortisol levels and common stress behaviors in beef calves. Fourteen calves were randomly divided into two equal groups of seven. The first group underwent traditional weaning while the second utilized the modified non-invasive nose-flaps. Blood samples were drawn from the coccygeal vein of the calves beginning on the day of weaning and continued on days 1, 2, 3, and 5. The blood was stored in red-top tubes, allowed to clot, and double-centrifuged to collect the serum. The serum was stored at -80 C until analyzed for total cortisol using a bovine cortisol ELISA plate. Behaviors, such as vocalizations and feeding, were also recorded in five-minute intervals every 12 hours beginning at weaning. Stress-related pacing was measured with an adjustable pedometer on the back leg of the calf. Results showed significant changes in cortisol levels on Day 1 (p < 0.05) and Day 2 (p < 0.01). By day three and through the end of the study, cortisol levels between the two groups showed no significant differences (p = 0.37). There were significant differences in vocalizations with the traditional group vocalizing 350 times during monitoring on the first day of weaning and the modified group vocalizing only 10 times within the same time frame. The traditional calves also paced more during the experiment.The largest difference between groups occurred on day one with the traditional calves pacing an average of 14,000 steps per calf while the calves in the modified group only averaged 8,200 steps. Our findings suggest that a modified weaning method utilizing nose-flaps decreases stress in calves during weaning and increases animal welfare and overall health.


Presenter(s) Information: Julia Johnson
Author(s): Julia Johnson, Trevor Talley, Dr. Jacob Immel
Chapter: Gamma Kappa
College/University: Southwest Baptist Univeristy
Subject Area of Presentation: Life Sciences, Physical Sciences

Presentation Title

Crambescidin 800: Possible Cancer Therapy for Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells 

Presentation Abstract

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is currently the only type of breast cancer without an effective targeted therapy due to the lack of estrogen, progesterone, and human epidermal growth factor 2 receptors. TNBC cells are often characterized by the up-regulation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Aκt, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MPK), and NF- κB kinases pathways. The organic compound Crambescidin 800 (C800), isolated from sponges of the genus Monanchora, has shown cytotoxic behaviors in TNBC cells by inducing cell death. When TNBC cells were treated with C800, the inhibition of phosphorylation of p-mTOR and p-Akt pathways was evident after only three hours of exposure. Current research on the function of C800 in the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway did not identify which receptor C800 bound to, eliciting its cytotoxic effect. Using a computer-based modeling and docking program, the binding capabilities of the receptors and kinases of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway were tested. The cell surface receptor, insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R), was found to bind the most effectively to C800 with a relative binding score of -7.9. Following the isolation of C800 from a sample of Monanchora unguiculata provided by the National Cancer Institute, a cell IGF1R luciferase reporter assay will be used to quantify C800’s role in inhibiting phosphorylation when bound to IGF1R. Determining if IGF1R is the target of C800 can lead to the preparation of an accessible drug-like molecule based on C800’s functional core.


Presenter(s) Information: Benjamin Cameron
Author(s): Benjamin Cameron, Dhabih Chulhai
Chapter: Rho
College/University: University of Indianapolis
Subject Area of Presentation: Physical Sciences

Presentation Title

The Effects of Left Over Metal Ions on the Toxicity of Gold Nanoparticle Solutions

Presentation Abstract

In previous work we have found that gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) have no toxic effects on bacteria. This contrasts with some findings of previously published research. We hypothesized this was due to a lack of remaining gold chloride ions left in solution. The goal of this research is to develop a method to determine the amount of gold ions remaining in solution after nanoparticle synthesis. AuNPs were centrifuged, their supernatant was then tested using MP-AES. It was found that there was no remaining gold in the supernatant indicating that the synthesis method used is completely effective at reducing gold (III) chloride into AuNPs.


Presenter(s) Information: David Pham
Author(s): David Pham, Dr. Brad Neal
Chapter: Rho
College/University: University of Indianapolis
Subject Area of Presentation: Physical Sciences

Presentation Title

The Study of Antioxidant Capacity of Galangin

Presentation Abstract

Antioxidants are a category of chemical species that garner the attention of multiple health and medically related fields because of their interaction with free radicals. Free radical species are highly reactive in nature and are a common byproduct of human metabolism. Because of their reactivity, they often cause and are associated with cellular damage. As such, interest in the proper understanding of antioxidant capacity of many molecules has become of significant importance. Using the potentiostat and cyclic voltammetry (CV), it is possible to gain a better understanding of the oxidation and reduction processes of molecules such as galangin, a particularly understudied antioxidant relative to others in its class. The purpose of this study is to utilize CV and measure the antioxidant capacity of galangin against superoxide scavenging and metal chelation. Superoxide scavenging will provide data that can clearly demonstrate galangin functioning as an antioxidant against radical species. Because metals are biologically active species and can bind to antioxidants, the analysis of antioxidants through metal chelation in-vitro might provide insight to their antioxidant capacity in-vivo.


Presenter(s) Information: Lee Hernandez
Author(s): Lee Hernandez
Chapter: Rho
College/University: University of Indianapolis
Subject Area of Presentation: Environmental Sciences

Presentation Title

Analysis of Heavy Metal Content in the University of Indianapolis R.B. Annis School of Engineering Soil

Presentation Abstract

The heavy metal contamination of soil facilitates the introduction of potentially toxic elements into the environment. The concentrations of these metals have increased significantly due to rapid industrialization and pose a risk to the health of countless organisms. The R.B. Annis School of Engineering on the University of Indianapolis campus, which previously functioned as the location for Tube Processing Corporation, is located between two trafficked roads and the Louisville & Indiana Railroad, making its soil susceptible to elevated heavy metal concentrations. The purpose of this study was to analyze the soil from the R.B. Annis School of Engineering for lead, zinc, cadmium, and titanium heavy metal content. This analysis will provide necessary information to gain a better understanding of the heavy metal contaminants in the soil to make an informed decision on the safety and future use of the land.

Poster Presentation Abstracts

Presenter(s) Information: Dustin Traffie
Author(s): Dustin Traffie
Chapter: Gamma Gamma
College/University: Concordia College Moorhead, MN
Subject Area of Presentation: Life Sciences, Physical Sciences

Presentation Title

The Utilization of the Crystal Kappa Mutations in HIV Fab Crystallization

Presentation Abstract

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a disease that is responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths a year. Before one can propose treatments for HIV, knowing what the antibodies responsible for targeting HIV look like is incredibly important. Various techniques seek to achieve this goal, and one in particular that I utilized over the Summer of 2023 was X-ray crystallography. Here, a protein of interest (HIV antibody protein) is purified and exposed to conditions that enable orderly and structured growth. If the conditions are correct, the proteins will undergo precipitation from their solution and form a crystalline structure. This crystal can then be subjected to direct exposure with beams of X-ray light (at a defined wavelength via an instrument known as a beamline) which yields diffraction patterns that can reveal the structure of our protein of interest. There were various antibody proteins that I purified, crystallized, and obtained diffraction patterns for. Along with this, my project involved editing the amino acid sequences for many of these proteins to better our crystallization rates. The results of this sequence editing and the overall crystallization process will be discussed.


Presenter(s) Information: Trevor Talley
Author(s): Trevor Talley, Jaida Kettner, Logan Turner, Paityn Kramer, Madeline Henry, Heather Baker, Lily Simmons, Rayna Cochran, Kate McDonald, Dr. John Murphy
Chapter: Gamma Kappa
College/University: Southwest Baptist University
Subject Area of Presentation: Life Sciences

Presentation Title

The Effects of Different Weaning Methods on Serum Cortisol Levels and Stress Behaviors in Bovine Calves

Presentation Abstract

Weaning of beef calves is considered the most stressful event in a calf’s life due to the abrupt physical separation of the calf from its mother. The traditional weaning method causes the secretion of cortisol, leading to physiological and psychological effects including an alteration of diet, unhealthy stress behaviors, decreased immune system, and profit loss of up to $1,000 per calf. Recent studies have developed a modified weaning method utilizing a non-invasive nose-flap to prevent the suckling reflex in calves while still maintaining the maternal bond. The purpose of this research is to provide evidence of a less stressful weaning method by measuring cortisol levels and common stress behaviors in beef calves. Fourteen calves were randomly divided into two equal groups of seven. The first group underwent traditional weaning while the second utilized the modified non-invasive nose-flaps. Blood samples were drawn from the coccygeal vein of the calves beginning on the day of weaning and continued on days 1, 2, 3, and 5. The blood was stored in red-top tubes, allowed to clot, and double-centrifuged to collect the serum. The serum was stored at -80 C until analyzed for total cortisol using a bovine cortisol ELISA plate. Behaviors, such as vocalizations and feeding, were also recorded in five-minute intervals every 12 hours beginning at weaning. Stress-related pacing was measured with an adjustable pedometer on the back leg of the calf. Results showed significant changes in cortisol levels on Day 1 (p < 0.05) and Day 2 (p < 0.01). By day three and through the end of the study, cortisol levels between the two groups showed no significant differences (p = 0.37). There were significant differences in vocalizations with the traditional group vocalizing 350 times during monitoring on the first day of weaning and the modified group vocalizing only 10 times within the same time frame. The traditional calves also paced more during the experiment. The largest difference between groups occurred on day one with the traditional calves pacing an average of 14,000 steps per calf while the calves in the modified group only averaged 8,200 steps. Our findings suggest that a modified weaning method utilizing nose-flaps decreases stress in calves during weaning and increases animal welfare and overall health.


Presenter(s) Information: Grace Bauchman
Author(s): Grace Bauchman
Chapter: Beta
College/University: McKendree University
Subject Area of Presentation: Life Sciences, Environmental Sciences

Presentation Title

The Effects of Herbicides on Soil Antimicrobial Activity

Presentation Abstract

Antibiotics, a sector of antimicrobial compounds, are essential to controlling disease spread and managing the health of species across the globe. One of the largest sources of microorganisms that produce antibiotics is soil. While soil is a main source of antibiotics to fight against other soil microorganisms, it is likewise the site of antibiotic resistant microorganisms. A major issue arises from the use of herbicides in agriculture. Herbicides have been shown to have the potential to change and cause harm to soil microorganisms with antimicrobial properties. Soil was collected from three different locations, each varying in herbicide exposure: little/none, moderate (runoff/indirect application) and high (direct application). For each site, soil texture and weather conditions were recorded. All emulsions, cultures, and isolates were preserved as glycerol stocks at –80C or as long-term viable cultures. Soil emulsion were made from each soil sample that served as the inoculum into three different medias commonly used to select for the three different classes of microorganisms found in soil: bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes. Each group specific culture was plated using a serial dilution technique to isolate the most common microorganisms with known antimicrobial activity. Cell extracts were prepared for each isolate and will be tested for antimicrobial activity. We plan to test the isolates against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus using the plate diffusion bioassay method. All bioassays will be completed in triplicate with statistical significance determined using ANOVA at a p-level <0.05.

Previous research pertaining to the effects of herbicides on soil antimicrobial properties exists showing the effects of particularly high levels of herbicide use but does not address how varying levels of herbicides cause an impact on antimicrobial activity. Thus, there is a paucity of knowledge regarding whether the level of herbicide concentration lingering poses a threat to soil microorganisms’ antimicrobial activities. My research will plan demonstrate a possible correlation between levels of herbicide exposure and soil antimicrobial activity through sampling of locations with different herbicide exposure.


Presenter(s) Information: Eli Stachofsky (presenter)
Author(s): Eli Stachofsky, Dr. Joseph Williams
Chapter: Beta Eta
College/University: Evangel University
Subject Area of Presentation: Physical Sciences

Presentation Title

Exploring the Arbuzov Reaction with Secondary Halides

Presentation Abstract

Hailed as one of the most versatile pathways for synthesizing carbon – phosphorus bonds, the Michaelis-Arbuzov rearrangement is one of great importance to the field of organophosphorus reactions. This research delves into the application of the Arbuzov reaction with a focus on secondary halides as substrates. The objective of this study is to determine the viability of secondary halides in the context of phosphorus-carbon bond formation as well as their effect on neighboring primary halides. Employing a systematic experimental approach, various primary and secondary halides were subjected to the Arbuzov reaction conditions, utilizing Triethyl Phosphite as a nucleophile. The methods employed involved optimization of various reaction parameters, such as temperature, molar ratio, and presence/absence of air, to maximize the efficiency of the reaction. Our findings reveal novel insights into the reactivity patterns of certain secondary halides in the Arbuzov reaction, shedding light on the factors influencing their success in forming phosphorus-carbon bonds. This research contributes valuable knowledge to the field of organic synthesis, adding to the current database of the reaction conditions and limitations of the Arbuzov reaction.


Presenter(s) Information: Kailynn Berger
Author(s): Kailynn Berger
Chapter: Gamma Eta
College/University: Marian University
Subject Area of Presentation: Physical Sciences

Presentation Title

Analysis of Sunscreen UV Protection utilizing UV-Visible Spectrophotometry

Presentation Abstract

Sunscreen is a staple in any household and with a variety of varying brands and SPF values it can be difficult to decipher which is the best choice. UV-visible spectrophotometry is one useful analytic method to compare the effectiveness of differing sunscreen samples. Absorbance of UVB and UVA radiation can be compared between the sunscreens by looking in the wavelength ranges of 290 to 320 nm (UVB) and 320 to 400 nm (UVA). Between the four varying sunscreens (Up & Up SPF 30 and 50 and Banana Boat SPF 30 and 50), the Up & Up SPF 50 showed greatest absorbance at all wavelength values.


Presenter(s) Information: Laphat Jean
Author(s): Laphat Jean and Dr. Trisha Stabb
Chapter: Gamma Eta
College/University: Marian University
Subject Area of Presentation: Life Sciences

Presentation Title

The lipidomes of C. elegans with mutations in asm-3 and hyl-2 show distinct lipid profiles during aging

Presentation Abstract

Within this decade, baby boomers will reach 65 years or older, contributing to an increasing ratio of aged individuals in our society. Aging and healthspan are associated with changes at multiple physiological levels, including damaged DNA, organelle deterioration, and protein misfolding. Our lab studies the mechanisms of aging and elucidates the cellular pathways which promote healthy aging.
Lipid metabolism affects cell and physiological functions that mediate animal healthspan and lifespan. Lipidomics approaches in model organisms have allowed us to better understand changes in lipid composition related to age and lifespan. Here, using the model C. elegans, we examine the lipidomes of mutants lacking enzymes critical for sphingolipid metabolism; specifically, we examine acid sphingomyelinase (asm-3), which breaks down sphingomyelin to ceramide, and ceramide synthase (hyl-2), which synthesizes ceramide from sphingosine.
Worm asm-3 and hyl-2 mutants have been previously found to be long- and short-lived, respectively. We analyzed longitudinal lipid changes in wild type animals compared to mutants at 1-, 5-, and 10-days of age. We detected over 700 different lipids in several lipid classes. Results indicate that wildtype animals exhibit increased triacylglycerols (TAG) at 10-days compared to 1-day, and decreased lysophoshatidylcholines (LPC). In addition, we find that hyl-2 mutants have poor oxidative stress response, supporting a model where mutants with elevated PUFAs may accumulate more oxidative damage. On the other hand, 10-day asm-3 mutants have fewer TAGs. Intriguingly, asm-3 mutants have a similar lipid composition as the long-lived, caloric restriction model eat-2/mAChR mutant. Last, we use RNAi to knockdown lipid metabolic enzymes at different life stages and examen stress response after knockdown. Together, these analyses highlight the utility of lipidomic analyses to characterize metabolic changes during aging in C. elegans.


Presenter(s) Information: Yvette Umutoniwase
Author(s): Umutoniwase Y., Le Z., Howard J., Jeppesen N., Scheele I., DeSilva Feelixge H.S., Strand K.
Chapter: Gamma Gamma
College/University: Concordia College Moorhead
Subject Area of Presentation: Life Sciences

Presentation Title

CULTURING NEURONS FROM ZEBRAFISH BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD: STUDENT-CENTERED TISSUE CULTURING APPROACH

Presentation Abstract

The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a well-established and widely used animal model in neuroscience, particularly in identifying neurons and in vivo architecture of the brain. Our lab established an in vitro neuronal tissue culture system that is student centered, affording undergraduate students the experience of visualizing neuronal development and differentiation in vitro. Our bench-top based system minimizes the need of advanced molecular facilities and allows students exposure to animal models, tissue culture driven molecular tools, and imaging techniques. Adapting sterile techniques for the classroom laboratory, we developed an efficient benchtop system for dissecting whole adult zebrafish brain and spinal cord and culturing zebrafish neurons. The whole brain tissue was homogenized with collagenase, and spinal cord with papain. The mixed population of cells were then purified using a gradient purification and cultured in a serum-free neuronal specific medium as a monolayer on poly-D-lysine- and laminin-coated tissue culture plates. Differentiation of both brain and spinal cord neurons happened as early as day one. We observed neurite outgrowth and early neural network formation within the first ten days. Neurons survived for at least 30 days. We are currently applying this technique in an integrated upper-level neurobiology course.


Presenter(s) Information: Seema Mustafa, Therese Byankuba, Luke Young
Author(s): Seema Mustafa, Therese Byankuba, Luke Young, and Dr. Jennifer Sweatman.
Chapter: Gamma Gamma
College/University: Concordia College
Subject Area of Presentation: Environmental Sciences

Presentation Title

Comparative analysis of microlitter abundance in the proventriculus, gizzard, and intestines of North American waterfowl

Presentation Abstract

Plastic pollution is pervasive, breaking down into microplastics (fragments ≤ 5mm) over
time and often accumulating into animal organs through ingestion. Recent studies have
detected microplastics in terrestrial soils and aquatic environments, yet limited
investigation has focused on waterfowl. To address this research gap, we analyzed the
proventriculus, gizzard, and intestines of North American waterfowl. Gastrointestinal
(GI) tracts from diverse waterfowl species and feeding habits were provided by local
hunters, significantly expanding our sample size. During the dissection of the GI tracts
we quantified microlitter abundance. We then performed a hot needle test to confirm
suspected microplastics. Our hypothesis explored variations in microlitter abundance
based on species and GI tract location. Of the samples analyzed, we found that 58%
contained microlitter. Our findings also revealed a significantly higher microlitter
abundance in the intestines compared to the proventriculus and gizzard. This suggests
consistent consumption of microlitter before waterfowl harvest. While these results shed
light on microlitter prevalence, additional research is crucial to quantify it further and
identify specific plastic types. Ongoing research findings can help inform resource
managers about the presence of microlitter in waterfowl, aiding in the implementation of
measures to protect these populations.


Presenter(s) Information: Yuden Dorji, Sharon Nwabia.
Author(s): Yuden Dorji, Favziya Rasulova, Mubina Rasulova, Fatima Mohammed, Sharon Nwabia, Dr. Joseph Whittaker
Chapter: Gamma Gamma
College/University: Concordia College of Moorhead
Subject Area of Presentation: Life Sciences, Environmental Sciences

Presentation Title

Assessing Microplastic Concentrations in the Gastrointestinal Tracts and Fecal Matter of Tree and Ground Squirrels (Sciuridae) found in Urban and Rural Habitats.

Presentation Abstract

Microplastics, minuscule plastic particles (MPs, < 5mm), are a pervasive threat to ecosystems, wildlife, and human health. Microplastics can cause gastrointestinal blockages and abrasions and jeopardize an animal’s digestive health, behavior, and survival. Microplastic ingestion can disrupt an animal’s natural feeding behavior, diminished nutrient acquisition and malnutrition or starvation. Previous studies have observed MPs in mammalian liver, kidney, and gastrointestinal (GI) tract samples. Prevalence of MPs is becoming increasingly recognized as a threat to public health and environmental conservation. In our ongoing study we aim to investigate MP content in three different tree squirrel species, the American Red Squirrel (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), Eastern Gray Squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis), and Eastern Fox Squirrels (Sciurus niger) and two ground squirrels, the Thirteen-lined Ground Squirrel (Ictidomys tridecemlineatus) and Franklin’s Ground Squirrel (Poliocitellus franklinii). We hope to observe variation in the quantities of MPs contamination and compare them to their behavioral and habitat differences and general location (rural or urban). We hypothesize that urban squirrels will exhibit lower levels of MPs. We also hypothesize that there will not be a difference between the number of MPs in ground squirrels versus tree squirrels. Our research involves examining gut content from feces of live-trapped squirrels and gastrointestinal tracts (GITs) from salvaged squirrels. Each sample was chemically digested using 10% KOH. Samples were vacuum filtered and examined using a dissection microscope. For standardization, we will calculate the number of MPs per gram (g-1) organ mass, or feces mass. While there is high variability, there is a trend for more plastic in the guts of rural squirrels, but the highest levels of plastic were collected from urban gray squirrels. Tree squirrels had significantly more microplastics than ground squirrels, thus far. We will obtain a small section of the gut to analyze its microbial content. Bacteria from each gut sample will be cultured and subsequently sent for further analysis. Our aim is to explore the potential correlation between Microplastic presence and microbiome diversity, hypothesizing that higher MP levels in the gut may correspond to reduced diversity and fewer beneficial gut bacteria.


Presenter(s) Information: Tamyra Hunt, Linet Rivas, Xochitl Martin Geronimo
Author(s): Tamyra Hunt, Linet Rivas, Xochitl Martin Geronimo, Mike Itgen, Rob Denton
Chapter: Gamma Eta
College/University: Marian University
Subject Area of Presentation: Life Sciences

Presentation Title

RNA-Seq Gene Expression and Diversity in A. laterale, A. jeffersonium, and Unisexual Salamanders

Presentation Abstract

The formation of allopolyploids (i.e., hybrids with additional sets of chromosomes) can dramatically and unpredictably impact how genes are expressed. It has been found that gene expression in polyploid hybrids can be influenced by many factors, such as environment or genomic composition, rather than being an intermediate of the two. The unisexual polyploid lineage of salamanders (Genus: Ambystoma) formed through the hybridization of two closely related species: A. Laterale (L set of chromosomes) and A. Jeffersonianism (J set of chromosomes). The unisexual salamanders are most often triploid (i.e., have three sets of chromosomes), but the number of chromosomes sets from the two parental species can vary. Some populations of unisexual salamanders can have two sets of Laterale chromosomes (LLJ), while others have two sets of Jeffersonianism chromosomes (LJJ). It is predicted that genes from each set of chromosomes should be expressed equally, producing a 2:1 ratio in gene expression depending on genotypic composition (LLJ vs. LJJ). We hypothesized that unisexual salamanders rely more heavily on one of the two species they are derived from, relating to their environment. The purpose of this study is to identify genes that are being overexpressed in the haploid chromosome set and do not fit the 2:1 expression pattern. Once these genes were identified, they were analyzed to understand their functional significance. It was also determined if the sets of genes that do not fit this pattern are distinct relative to the genotypic composition or population.
We accomplished this using bioinformatic approaches, such as gene ontology annotations using the program Salmon V1.10.2 and functional enrichment analyses on RNA-Seq expression data using EnrichR. It was found that unisexual salamanders do indeed rely more heavily on one of the two species they are derived from, relating to their environment. From these results, we are better able to understand the dynamics of gene expression in polyploid unisexual salamanders and the potential importance of specific gene expression pathways.


Presenter(s) Information: Luna Holley
Author(s): Luna Holley
Chapter: Sigma Zeta
College/University: Marian University
Subject Area of Presentation: Physical Sciences, Science Education

Presentation Title

Effects of varying concentrations on the enzyme lactase

Presentation Abstract

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Abstract Embargo: Yes


Presenter(s) Information: Mollie E. Hill, Delaney M. Hare
Author(s): Delaney M. Hare*, Mollie E. Hill*, Dr. Sarah A. Justice, Dr. Don Paetkau, Dr. Alondra Díaz Lameiro, Dr. Juan Carlos Martinez-Cruzado
Chapter: Gamma Eta
College/University: Marian University
Subject Area of Presentation: Life Sciences

Presentation Title

Annotation of ANO3 in the Puerto Rican Parrot

Presentation Abstract

The Genomics Education Partnership (GEP) aims to provide authentic research projects in genomics for undergraduate students across the country. One of the newest GEP projects involves annotation of eggshell genes in the Puerto Rican parrot, Amazona vittata. Amazona vittata was declared endangered in 1967 and its population bottlenecked in 1972 at 16 individuals. On the edge of extinction, conservationists captured 13 individuals of the species to start a breeding program. This population has grown to ~500 individuals, but successful breeding has been difficult due to lack of genetic diversity in the population. One trait in particular that has caused problems is poor quality of eggshells—some eggs have too soft of shells, while other eggs have too hard of shells—which poses threats for chick development. Without protection, the chick can die of infection or instability; with too much protection, the chick cannot properly hatch. Currently, the genes responsible for the poor eggshell quality in A. vittata are unknown. Additionally, the genome of A. vittata was recently sequenced and has not yet been annotated. The GEP Puerto Rican Parrot project aims to annotate genes in A. vittata that are known to be involved in eggshell development in Gallus gallus (chickens). In this project, we annotated the ANO3 gene using UCSC Genome Browser, NCBI BLAST, ENSEMBL, and other genomics tools available at thegep.org. ANO3 is responsible for excitability and neurotransmitter release and was found to be differentially expressed in the uterus during eggshell formation in chickens. After annotation and characterization of ANO3 coding regions, the sequences of the three annotated isoforms of ANO3 will be compared to those of more closely related species, such as Melopsittacus undulatus (budgie) or Amazona aestiva (blue-fronted parrot) in an attempt to discover mutations disrupting proper eggshell development. A better understanding of what genes are specifically mutated in A. vittata as compared to these other species will help inform breeding practices in captivity and restore this beloved species in Puerto Rico.


Presenter(s) Information: Elizabeth Piercy
Author(s): Elizabeth Piercy, Sarah Justice, Hudson Alpha
Chapter: Gamma Eta
College/University: Marian University
Subject Area of Presentation: Life Sciences

Presentation Title

Computational Modeling of a ZMIZ1 Missense Mutation to Determine Variant as Benign or Pathogenic.

Presentation Abstract

Genomic medicine utilizes information from an individual’s genome to help guide medical decision-making and personalized medicine. It leverages advances in genomic sequencing technologies, bioinformatics, and data analysis to better understand the genetic basis of diseases and to develop personalized approaches to healthcare. A significant challenge to genomic medicine is determining what genetic variations lead to clinical phenotypes vs. those that are normal human variation. Variants of unknown significance (VUSs) are genetic variants that have been identified through testing but insufficient evidence or data exist to classify the variant as benign or pathogenic.
Experimentally characterizing all VUSs is tedious and costly. To help focus studies to variants likely causing disease, HudsonAlpha Project CODE is utilizing the manpower of undergraduate researchers to computationally model VUSs and identify mutations that are likely impacting protein function for follow up experimentation. This project aims to characterize a VUS found in a patient receiving care at HudsonAlpha. The patient presented with developmental delays, feeding issues that started forty-eight hours after birth, and poor head control. Homology modeling, analysis using predictive tools, and molecular dynamics simulations will be used to investigate a Lys91Arg missense mutation in ZMIZ1. ZMIZ1 is a transcriptional coactivator that is involved in TGF-β signaling, activation of NOTCH1 genes, and has been found to regulate neuronal positioning during cerebral cortex development. Upon successful completion of these analyses, findings will be reported back to HudsonAlpha for follow-up experiments regarding the functional consequences of this variant.


Presenter(s) Information: Laphat Jean and Kailynn Berger.
Author(s): Laphat Jean, Kailynn Berger, and Dr. Patrick McVey
Chapter: Gamma Eta
College/University: Marian University
Subject Area of Presentation: Life Sciences, Physical Sciences

Presentation Title

Analysis of Crystallinity of Miconazole Tablets by Electrospray Laser Desorption Ionization Mass Spectrometry Imaging

Presentation Abstract

Fungal infections are responsible for more than 9 million outpatient visits every year. Treatment for fungal infections is often non-invasive and many antifungal medications are available from a pharmacy without a prescription in tablet form, such as miconazole. For the medication to work effectively, however, tablets need to be stored in a proper temperature and humidity-controlled environment. Exposure to high humidity can cause chemical degradation of the active ingredients in pills, leading to reduced effectiveness or even rendering the medication ineffective. For some active pharmaceutical ingredients (API), this happens because the drug can crystallize within the pill.
In this experiment, miconazole tablets of varying crystallinity percentages (0.5, 1, and 2%) and control tablets without blended crystalline API were placed in high humidity (75% RH) elevated temperature environments. Upon removal from this environment, the tablets were allowed to equilibrate and then were analyzed by electrospray laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry imaging (ELDI-MSI). A Thermo Fisher Scientific LTQ XL linear ion trap mass spectrometer was used with the Thermo electrospray ionization (ESI) source housing modified to facilitate laser ablation at ambient pressure.
The distribution of crystalline miconazole within the tablets was imaged and compared across the different tablets. A higher crystalline API content leads to more agglomerated API signal in mass spectrometry images. In the miconazole tablets, there was a minor increase in API agglomeration between tablets kept in the high humidity environment and control tablets. These results show a potential link between poor storage conditions and increased crystallization over time, but this process is not likely to occur rapidly.


Presenter(s) Information: Kloie Cook
Author(s): Rayna Cochran, Heather Baker, Kaila Lloyd, Jaida Kettner, Kloie Cook, Kate McDonald, and John Murphy, Ph.D.
Chapter: Gamma Kappa
College/University: Southwest Baptist University
Subject Area of Presentation: Environmental Sciences

Presentation Title

Quantifying the Colonization Rates of Native Dung Beetles in Dung Pats

Presentation Abstract

The presence of native dung beetles plays a critical role in the ecosystem by significantly enhancing dung decomposition and soil nutrient recycling. These accelerated natural processes help contribute positively to soil health and combat the leaching of important nutrients in the soil, such as phosphorus and nitrogen. To reduce internal parasite loads, cattle are treated with anti-parasitic drugs, such as Ivermectin. However, due to the chemical makeup of many of these anti-parasitic drugs, dung beetle populations have reduced greatly in number. Newer brands of anti-parasitic drugs, such as SafeGuard, are considered to be “dung beetle-friendly”. SafeGuard does not hinder the growth of dung beetle larvae, which allows the dung beetle populations to recolonize and effectively contribute to the ecosystem. The purpose of this research is to study the colonization rates of native dung beetles within a “dung beetle-friendly” environment.
A pasture of 108 cows was observed for three hours to flag and label 18 freshly defecated dung pats. In the first twenty-four hours of the experiment, three samples were collected at the 12-hour interval and then again at the 24-hour interval. After the initial 24 hours, three samples were collected every 24 hours over the next four days. All samples were collected using a shovel to a depth of two inches into the soil, placed in sealed buckets, and transported to the lab. Within twelve hours of collection, all were analyzed using a floating procedure, which entails a small amount of dung being mixed with water in a tray, causing the dung beetles to exit the pat and float to the surface. The beetles were collected, sorted into their respective guilds, and counted. Results showed that within the first 12 and 24 hours of sampling, both tunneler and dweller beetles were present in similar populations. These trends continued into the 48-hour mark. However, at the 72-hour sampling, we found a dramatic jump in the number of dwellers compared to tunnelers with the number of dwellers being almost fifteen times greater than tunnelers. After 96 hours, both guilds diminish as the pats become dry.


Convention Participants

Sigma

Our Lady of the Lakes University

Participants

Jim Hall (F)
Adam Bynum (F)
Aaliyah Delgado, Vanessa Rodriguez
Janessa Roney, Lauren Valtierra
Edwin Ruiz, Kristina Torres
Meaghan Molina, Valerie Bolanos
Brisa Gil, Destiny Arenas

Alpha Gamma

Malone University

Participants

David Hahn (F)
Jack Swartz

Beta

McKendree University

Participants

Robb VanPutte (F)
Grace Bauchman

Beta Eta

Evangel University

Participants

Joseph Williams (F)
Eli Stachofsky

Gamma Eta

Marian University

Participants

Joyce Horton (F)
 Zachary Sylvain (F)
Patrick McVey (F)
Alexandra Tamerius (F)
Laphat Jean, Mollie Hill, Luna Holley, Delaney Hare, Kailynn Berger, Kyle McCreary, Linet Rivas, Tamyra Hunt, Elizabeth Piercy, Xochiti Martin Geronimo

Rho

University of Indianapolis

Participants

Joe Burnell (F)
David Styers-Barnett (F)
Aiden Muñoz, Ben Cameron, Lee Hernandez
Elijah Armour, Grace Rout, David Pham

Beta Xi

University of Pikeville

Participants

Bernadine Cochran (F)
Samuel Lane
Noah Helphenstine
Casey Peavler

Alpha Beta

Campbellsville University

Participants

Amy Berry (F)
Ashlee Matney (F)
Anoushka Ann Lazarus Harrypersad
Jacob Milby
Zoe Scott
McKenzie McGee
Peter Kolomyiets
Kayla Hamilton
Gabriel Ogbonnaya

Gamma Kappa

Southwest Baptist University

Participants

Dennis Siegfried(F)

Gamma Gamma

Concordia College

Participants

Joe Whittaker (F)
Graeme Wyllie (F)
Jenn Sweatman (F)
Iyanu Lamina, Sharon Mac-George Nwabia
Yuden Dorji, Seema Mustafa
Yvette Umutoniwase, Favziya Rasulova
Fatima Mohammed, Bella Brezonick
Brinn Donais, Dustin Traffie
Luke Young, Therese Byankuba
Alissa Edjacin, Hannah Olson

Committees
Auditing
Aiden Muñoz
Laphat Jean
Mollie Hill
Destiny Arenas
Dustin Traffie
Anoushka Ann Lazarus Harrypersad
Jacob Milby
Founder’s Cup Awards
David Pham
Luna Holley
Xochiti Martin Geronimo
Grace Bauchman
Lauren Valtierra
Edwin Ruiz
Iyanu Lamna
Sharon Mac-George Nwabia
Zoe Scott
National Service Project
Noah Helphenstine
Delaney Hare
Kailynn Berger
Vanessa Rodriguez
Valerie Bolanos
Therese Byankuba
Seema Mustafa
McKenzie McGee
Nominations
Grace Rout
Kyle McCreary
Linet Rivas
Kristina Torres
Brinn Donnais
Yuden Dorji
Favziya Rasulova
Fatima Mohammed
Peter Kolomyiets
Resolutions
Jack Swartz
Ben Cameron
Tamyra Hunt
Aaliyah Delgado
Janessa Roney
Bella Brezonick
Hannah Olson
Alissa Edjacin
Kayla Hamilton
Website
Lee Hernandez
Elijah Armour
Elizabeth Piercy
Brisa Gil
Meaghan Molina
Yvette Umuntoniwase
Luke Young
Gabriel Ogbonnaya
Recommended Hotel Accommodations (Reserve by phone and ask SBU discount)
NameAddressPhonePriceBreakfast
Best Western Plus Bolivar Hotel & Suites777 E San Martin St, Bolivar MO 65613+14173260188Yes
Comfort Inn Bolivar2451 W Tower Dr., Bolivar MO 65613+14173266169Yes
Country Inn1819 S Wommack Ave, Bolivar MO 65613+14173268004Yes
Super 8 by Wyndham Bolivar1919 S Wommack Ave, Bolivar MO 65613+14177778888Yes
Sigma Zeta 2024 National Convention Mileage
Southwest Baptist University, Bolivar, Missouri
ChapterSchoolMiles (Roundtrip)Allotment (Mileage*$0.55)
AlpenaAlpena Community College1784$981.20
Alpha BetaCampbellsville University1076$591.80
Alpha ChiEastern University2158$1186.90
Alpha DeltaNewman University842$463.10
Alpha EpsilonIndiana Wesleyan University1034$568.70
Alpha EtaThe University of Olivet1326$729.30
Alpha GammaMalone University1508$829.40
Alpha KappaUniversity of Southern Indiana740$407
Alpha LambdaSuffolk University2796$1537.80
Alpha MuImmaculata University2136$1174.80
Alpha NuOglethorpe University1418$779.90
Alpha OmegaSt. Mary of the Woods College754$414.70
Alpha PhiMarist College2418$1329.90
Alpha PiTrevecca Nazarene University930$511.50
Alpha PsiHillsdale College1314$722.70
Alpha RhoStonehill College2818$1549.90
Alpha SigmaDakota Wesleyan University1132$622.60
Alpha ThetaAsbury University1094$601.70
Alpha UpsilonUnion University710$390.50
Alpha XiUniversity of Virginia’s College at Wise1428$785.40
Alpha ZetaIndiana State University752$413.60
BetaMcKendree University464$255.20
Beta AlphaLyndon State College
Beta BetaGeorge Fox University
Beta ChiWalsh University
Beta DeltaGwynedd Mercy University
Beta EpsilonArcadia University
Beta EtaEvangel University
Beta GammaColumbia College
Beta IotaBethel University
Beta KappaKentucky Wesleyan College
Beta LambdaMessiah College
Beta MuCoastal Carolina University
Beta NuHoughton College
Beta OmegaVirginia Wesleyan University
Beta OmicronMadonna University
Beta PhiCollege of the Ozarks
Beta PiUniversity of Ark Monticello
Beta PsiMartin University
Beta RhoCastleton State College
Beta SigmaBaker University
Beta TauGardner-Webb University
Beta ThetaBelhaven College
Beta UpsilonMarygrove College
Beta XiUniversity of Pikeville
Beta ZetaCabrini University
ChiMissouri Valley College
CanyonsCollege of the Canyons
EpsilonOtterbein University
GammaMedical College of Virginia
Gamma AlphaChestnut Hill College
Gamma BetaConcord University
Gamma GammaConcordia College
Gamma DeltaThe Master’s College
Gamma EpsilonFranklin Pierce University
Gamma ZetaSt. Thomas Aquinas College
Gamma EtaMarian University
Gamma ThetaGeorgian Court University
Gamma IotaNeumann University
Gamma KappaSouthwest Baptist University
Gamma LambdaMissouri Baptist University
Gamma MuBaptist College of the Health Sciences
Gamma NuChowan University
Gamma OmicronSt. Joseph’s University
Gamma XiKing’s College
Gamma PiWarner University
Gamma RhoMiami Dade College – Padron
Gamma SigmaColorado Christian University
Gamma TauFaulkner University
Gamma UpsilonWilmington University
LambdaMansfield University
MuMankato State University
PhiEureka College
PiMillikin University
PsiUniversity of Central Missouri
RhoUniversity of Indianapolis
SigmaOur Lady of the Lake University
SomersetSomerset Community College
TauEast Stroudsburg University
UpsilonAnderson University
XiBall State University
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